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Notes

INTRODUCTION TO SLURRY REACTORS

Many industrial processes involve multi-phase systems, and perhaps the most complex is the gas-liquid-solid or slurry reactor. The complexity of this system arises from the simultaneous presence of mass and heat transport involving all three phases in addition to reaction. Although the transport phenomena can often be theoretically evaluated, by assuming limiting cases, the addition of the reactor operating characteristics and slurry physical properties introduces further complexities. Empirical correlation based on a particular reactor at actual operating conditions must then be utilized.

LABORATORY AND COMMERCIAL-SCALE CATALYTIC REACTORS

Designing and using laboratory-scale reactors for studying catalysts can be a very confusing process. Laboratory catalytic reactors are used for a variety of objectives including catalyst screening and evaluation, determination of reaction data, simulation of commercial process conditions, studies of catalyst pretreatments or aging, etc. Each of these objectives lends itself to a specific design of the reactor in order to achieve results which are meaningful. This Altamira Note discusses three common applications of laboratory-scale reactors and the suitability of various reactor types for these different research and development applications.
 

STEADY-STATE ISOTOPIC TRANSIENT KINETIC ANALYSIS (SSITKA

In the study of reactions on heterogeneous catalysts over the past 40 years, much use has been made of transient kinetic techniques in order to provide insight into surface reaction processes and mechanisms. These techniques have typically employed at reaction conditions the use of stopping/ starting the flow of one of the reactants or of pulsing the reactants. With the exception of experiments studying the exchange reaction between molecules at steady flow (1), it is difficult to extrapolate the results from these transient, non-steady-state studies to interpret the nature of surface reaction under steady-state conditions.